Table of Contents

1.0 Actual extent of Intersectionality theory of life course criminology. 3

2.0 The expected extent of the theory of life course criminology. 5

References. 7

1.0 Actual extent of Intersectionality theory of life course criminology

In criminology, the intersectionality theory named ‘life course theory is the backbone of the interdisciplinary and intersectional theories of criminology. Life-course criminology theory is the emerging disciplinary theory among all theories of criminology. It defines criminology under the extent of intersectional approaches. How race, gender, and age impact the life course criminology. Life-course theory of criminology teaches the approach to people that how the person is analyzed and detected based on the environment of mental state, the culture of the society, and the bond of social aspect among people of the society to lead the behavior of any antisocial crime.

 Life-course criminology theory is the theory related to race, gender, and ethnicity. Thus how intersectional theory revolves around the discussion of Life course criminology theory. It defines antisocial activities or antisocial behavior with the paradigm of race, gender, and ethnicity aspects. It is the perspective that defines the development of different antisocial activities, different risk factors at the age of different persons (Sampson and Laub, 2017). The intersectional theory approach is based on these paradigms. It defines the ideological variations between the people of antisocial and social people from the perspective of society.

The intersectional approach is based on three paradigms.

  • Age

Age factor is analyzed by integrating various criminology factors. All the criminological factors are included in the ecological, biological, psychological, economic, and socialization aspects the society. Antisocial behavior starts early in life if the criminology factor hits the mind of the child. Any family that represents the crime or illegal, antisocial activity laves a critical impact on the child. Often it is noticed that criminological psychology belongs to the period of adolescence or puberty in the mind of any child. Sometimes, adulthood can suffer from the impact of antisocial behavior or antisocial activities (Pessin et al. 2021). Early initiation of crime or antisocial activities can cause great consequences in society. Children are out of the motive and only inherit the previously indicated psychology of the other adult members of the same family. Life-course criminology theory often persists in studying the facts and the laws of early age antisocial activities. In this integrated theory of criminology, the age factor is one of the integrated factors for the study of intersectional criminology. Life-course criminology theory predicts the early stage of antisocial behavior as ‘just an outgrown phase’ among children. In this theory, crime tactics in early childhood are the most accurate prediction of child criminology.

  • Gender 

Gender is another form of the predictive and intersectional study of the Life-course criminology theoryFemales have less social conflict and antisocial activities than males. Females have less power than males in the patriarchal society. The end-stage life course terminology or criminological theory applies the mental development of the person of antisocial communities. Just because females have the most social influence on them, it can be concluded that they have less antisocial power than males (Jones et al. 2018). In this theoretical explanation, the life issue of any individual carries out depending on social development. The cultural extent and communities play an influential role in the gender biasness of the theoretical application. The distinction of commitment of any crime is continuing through history, and it is noticeable that the crime rate of females is lower than the crime rate of males. This actual variation or distinction is carried out by all the races, all the communities, and nearly all the ages from the past eras. Life-course criminology theory revealed the true side of criminal intensity according to the gender role in society. 

  • Ethnicity / Race

Race and crime commitment are one of the major concerns of the Life-course criminology theory. The pattern of crime that persists in the various races and ethnic communities is considered as the highest crime committed to race in the history of criminology. Life-course criminology theory gives a clear idea of life risk factors and mitigation courses of the individual behavior. But when the crime of races appears, it is remarkable that the low-populated and extinct races have some serious crime commitment records in the history of criminology. Not only the ethnic races but high-populated races also occur in serious crimes that nearly neutralize the crime records of other communities (Blokland and Van der Geest, 2017). The young generation of different communities is the prime concern of the Life-course criminology theory. They are attracted easily by the bad influencer and commit the crime by a dilute motive. Parents are also responsible for the bad behavior of the people of the younger generation. The theory applies the mental camouflage of early childhood to adultery interchange.

2.0 The expected extent of the theory of life course criminology

The intersectional extent can be the vast ideas taken from the actual extent of Life course criminology theory. The actual extent has three primary factors that influence the Life-course criminology theory (McCuish and Lussier, 2017). The factors should be the same but having more vast knowledge and extension of the three strategic phases of Life course criminology theory. All the issues and behaviors are studied under the course tier of Life course criminology theory. 

  • Three-tier strategy extent on the factors

A three-tier strategy of prevention and intervention of crime is the most significant way to analyze the social factors - Age, Gender, and Race. 

  • Primary tier: In the Primary tier, the theory can be extended in the behavior study of the criminal mind. The psychology of behavior is the most critical study in the criminology analysis of all criminal cases. Early prevention of antisocial activities is the major emphasis on the prevention of crime in all social factors (Farrington, 2019). Early crime prevention can be practiced by all kinds of social factors. Children who are going to schools or in the educational system can be the major attraction of early antisocial behavior. All types of gender and races are also included in this extent of the theory. If the early intervention of any crime is investigated, it should be investigated along with the psychology of children. Male children are more of an intervention point of the society of antisocial communities. 
  • Secondary tier: Second-tier strategy extensions are the important aspect of the intersectional study of the theory. The target of the antisocial communities is the fragile psychology students in the schools and colleges (Rafter, 2018). The second tier deals with the risk mitigation with these revealing antisocial activities. It deals with all types of social factors, including age, gender, and ethnicity. Risk management is the major intention of criminological intervention. It deals with the early correction and further prevention of crimes. All the social factors are influenced by the second tier of the early prevention strategy. People with a harsh mentality often trigger the criminal attempt of their children. Early risk prevention helps the children to get rid of those criminal ideologies in negative approaches.
  • Tertiary tier: Tertiary tier offers the late prevention of the crime and the knowledge of crime management and Life-course criminology theory. Life-course deals with the early prevention and late intervention of the three-tier strategic theory. Long-term studies with criminal activities can intervene in the social upbringing of children who have had a tough childhood since birth (Shon and Mansager, 2019). Entangling a child by social behavior can change antisocial behavior, violence, and brutal psychology in the future.
  • Major issue emphasis on the social factors
  • Poor upbringing

The adaptation of criminology is not only based on the external environment but also based on the internal architecture of a child. All social factors are interconnected by the poor upbringing issues across the globe. It is obvious that people who have a harsh past in their life can commit the crime without any hesitation (Wikström, 2019). That crime commitment doesn’t interfere with gender or race, or age diversification. All remain the same in front of the criminal manifesto of the person.

  • Antisocial behavior

Antisocial behavior extension is a possible extension in theory. An adequate manner of personification in the right path doesn’t initiate any antisocial behavior. But wrong parenting or harsh behavior can initiate antisocial activities (Suzuki et al. 2018). Social institutions neglect the practical value of the society and often give importance to the theoretical value of the society that is fully theory-based. No practical application makes a person antisocial due to the lack of skillful social activities in academic institutions. 

  • Bad conduct

Bad conduct not only persists in the environmental level but also persists in the genetic level also. Biological make-up also inherits the social inauguration of criminal activities. Sometimes, the knowledge of genetic activities lacks the major conduct of the parents and the educational institution (Dannefer, 2020). This conducts social crime, no matter what the race is. Also, gender doesn’t directly influence criminal activities. The bad conduct does influence the extended study of the theory. The intersectional theory often applies to the promotional extent that is the understudy of the criminology aspect. The approaches are under interpretation in recent times also. 


Blokland, A. and Van der Geest, V. eds., 2017. The routledge international handbook of life-course criminology. Taylor & Francis.

Dannefer, D., 2020. Systemic and reflexive: Foundations of cumulative dis/advantage and life-course processes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 75(6), pp.1249-1263.

Farrington, D.P., 2019. Childhood risk and protective factors for early desisters, late desisters and life-course persistent offenders. Revista Española de Investigación Criminológica, 17, pp.1-33.

Jones, M.S., Worthen, M.G., Sharp, S.F. and McLeod, D.A., 2018. Life as she knows it: The effects of adverse childhood experiences on intimate partner violence among women prisoners. Child Abuse & Neglect, 85, pp.68-79.

McCuish, E.C. and Lussier, P., 2017. Unfinished stories: From juvenile sex offenders to juvenile sex offending through a developmental life course perspective. Aggression and violent behavior, 37, pp.71-82.

Pessin, L., Rutigliano, R. and Potter, M.H., 2021. Time, money, and entry into parenthood: The role of (grand) parental support. Journal of Marriage and Family.

Rafter, N., 2018. Cesare Lombroso and the Origins of Criminology: Rethinking Criminological Tradition 1. In The essential criminology reader (pp. 33-42). Routledge.

Sampson, R.J. and Laub, J.H., 2017. A general age-graded theory of crime: Lessons learned and the future of life-course criminology. In Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 165-182). Routledge.

Shon, P. and Mansager, E., 2019. Negligent criminology: Alfred Adler’s influence on Bernard, Sheldon, and Eleanor Glueck. European Journal of Criminology, p.1477370819874455.

Suzuki, M., Pai, C.F. and Islam, M.J., 2018. Systematic quantitative literature review on criminological theories in Asia. Asian Journal of Criminology, 13(2), pp.129-151.

Wikström, P.O.H., 2019. Explaining crime and criminal careers: The DEA model of situational action theory. Journal of developmental and life-course criminology, pp.1-16.