Table of Contents

Case study 1-Ethical Practice in Leadership. 3

Introduction. 3

Main Body. 3

Greatest strengths and weaknesses of the person as a leader 3

What would you do and why?. 4

Application of leadership theories and models. 4

Importance of codes of ethical practice. 7

Conclusion. 8

Case study 2-Organisational Cultures and Change. 9

Introduction. 9

Main Body. 9

Type of organizational culture of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler 9

Types of leadership styles could be best suited to achieving both these organizations objectives. 10

What can leaders do to ensure effective team engagement within their organizations in case of Change management?. 11

Conclusion. 13

References. 1

Case study 1-Ethical Practice in Leadership


Leadership practices of a leader must have ethics and principles as the major conduct with concepts of honesty, trust, integrity, and fairness. Ethical leaders need to practice ethics and values in their leadership practices along with consideration regarding the dignity and rights of others. This assignment will portray the case study of Arthur Lawrence as a leader who considered the job and economy of the population in Blackley. Questions regarding the case study where Lawrence faced issues challenging his ethics and principles as a leader will be answered in this individual report with appropriate referencing.

Main Body

Greatest strengths and weaknesses of the person as a leader

Strengths of Lawrence as a leader

  1. The major strength of Lawrence as a leader was that he was an ethical leader who portrayed ethical behavior (Kim and Thapa, 2018)
  2. Lawrence paid his employees well that improved the engagement and productivity from employees (Banks et al. 2021)
  3. Lawrence think about the issues in Blackley and makes strategies about them
  4. Lawrence helps the people in Blackley with enough wages (Kuenzi, Mayer, and Greenbaum, 2018)
  5. Great financial stability leads the company in a good direction (Lumpkin and Achen, 2018)
  6. Maintenance of ethical culture, values, and positive emotions resulting in employees being treated respectfully (Engelbrecht, Heine, and Mahembe,2017)
  7. A well-educated stockbroker who knows about laws, regulations, and codes of conduct in business management and leadership (Engelbrecht, Mahembe and Wolmarans, 2017)
  8. Transparency and focus on team building was present in the characteristics of Lawrence
  9. Value-driven decisions and awareness towards values were present in him as a person improves the reputation of Lawrence as a leader (Babalola, Stouten, Camps, and Euwema, 2019)
  10. Following laws and improved work, culture can be seen under Lawrence (Ng et al. 2021)

Weaknesses of Lawrence as a leader

  1. Lawrence demonstrated a costly leadership style (Potipiroon and Ford, 2017)
  2. Confusion is there in the mind of Lawrence to choose either the ethical way to protect himself from going to prison and getting his career wrecked as a director or to follow unethical way for protecting the economy of Blackley (Kuenzi, Mayer, and Greenbaum, 2020)
  3. Clarity regarding the fact is still not clear in his mind and support of other directors are required for clever decisions as an ethical leader (Ahmad, Donia, Khan, and Waris, 2019)

What would you do and why?

Arthur Lawrence faced several issues in the past as well in his career of directorship and leadership, but this is a more complex decision or issue for Lawrence. He has to choose either the ethical way or the unethical way for the continuation of his leadership practice in Blackley shipyard (Duan, Liu, and Che, 2018). He invested his fortune for the economic stability of the population of Blackley and was trying to revive their economic stability that failed and was lost due to the great depression and Wall street cash period (Gao and He, 2017). However, he will have to break laws, pay bribes to the Minister of Marine, and will have to violate ethical practices and principles as a leader (Ahmad, 2018).

If I had to take a choice between the ethical and the unethical path, I would have applied the theories and concepts of ethical leadership in the decision making process.

Application of leadership theories and models

Effective application of the ethical practices and models in the leadership practices of leaders in the decision-making process must be promoted (Qing, Asif, Hussain, and Jameel, 2020). I would have applied the leadership theory and model in the case of Blackley. I will apply the interactionist model of ethical decision-making, integrated ethics model and 7-step model for ethical decision-making. In addition, I need to avoid Machiavellianism in order to be an ethical leader with ethical practices (Peng and Kim, 2020). I shall apply these concepts of ethical leadership and will deny paying the bribe to the Ministry of Marine. This will however result in the shipyard of Blackley that has been invested by Arthur Lawrence with his own finances to close down (Tu, Lu Choi and Guo, 2019). This will also result in the unemployment of the community as well as its disappearance due to no economic support and finances for their wages (Feng et al. 2019). The shipyard, as well as the town, will be sacrificed due to the ethical behavior shown by me as their leader, but unethical behavior will result in the loss of honor and imprisonment by me as well (Neves, Almeida, and Velez, 2018). As an ethical leader, this is unacceptable for me. The loss of honor, imprisonment as well as being banned from holding a company directorship will also result in the closing down of the shipyard, but a small delay will be observed (Ko et al. 2019). However, I will lead the contribution of reinforcing the culture of corruption and example of unethical leadership if I followed the unethical practice of bribing (Pasricha, Singh and Verma, 2018).

Application of interactionist model of ethical decision-making

The ethical decision that will be taken by me as a leader with a person-situation interactionist model includes the stages of:

  1. An ethical dilemma that will result in a Stage of cognitive development with morals (Garba, Babalola, and Guo, 2018)
  2. Different situational moderators and basis of thinking will take place (De Roeck and Farooq, 2018)
  3. The end-stage will be Ethical or unethical behavior by me as the leader (Ahmed et al. 2020)

Figure 1: Figure portraying the model of ethical decision-making


Integrated ethics model

I will also apply this model in my thinking process for taking the right decision. This model is effective for leaders like Arthur Lawrence in case of decisions towards ethical or unethical behavior (Shareef and Atan, 2019). This is effective as this model highlights the integration between the decision-making process and ethical considerations. The systematic analytical tool of ethics will be the positive aspects towards positive decision making (Charoensap et al. 2019). The three major elements of this model are- the ethical component, the decision-making components, and the contextual component (Lumpkin and Achen, 2018).

Figure 2: Integrated approach of the ethical decision-making theory


Seven step model for ethical decision-making

Another major way of determining the right decision based on ethics and morals of Arthur Lawrence includes the 7-step model for ethical decision. I may also involve this seven-step model in my decision making process:

  1. Identification of the issue and ethical dilemma (Dust et al. 2018)
  2. Identification of potential issues involved (Wang, Xing, Xu and Hannah, 2019)
  3. Reviewing of the relevant ethical codes (Haar, Roche and Brougham, 2019)
  4. Know the laws and regulations that are applicable (Saha et al. 2020)
  5. Determining the facts and development of the options involved (Yang and Wei, 2018)
  6. Consideration of the possible as well as the probable course of actions (Yang and Wei, 2017)
  7. Enumerating the consequences of the various decisions (Tourigny et al. 2019)

Avoiding Machiavellianism

Avoiding Machiavellianism is an important step for me. Machiavellianism can be avoided or reduced by the following steps:

  1. Making lists of all the things that need to be done
  2. Setting boundaries for good and bad and sticking to the appropriate ones (Asif et al. 2019)
  3. Being aware of the own vulnerabilities (Dion 2017)
  4. Trying to establish situations that can be less manipulative and deceitful (Byun et al. 2018)
  5. Not following dark traits and sides of a situation (Shafique, Kalyar, and Ahmad, 2018)

Importance of codes of ethical practice

Codes of ethics and conduct are important and beneficial for a leader as the leader can lay out the rules and regulations that will be followed by him with positive behavior towards his followers (Kim and Thapa, 2018). The codes of conduct are effective as it is the central guide as well as a reference for the leaders in their decision-making processes (Javed et al. 2018). The leaders for effective leadership practices maintain standards of professional conduct. The importance and benefits of ethical practices and codes of conduct by a leader will lead to:

  1. Setting the right team and leadership culture (Benevene et al. 2018)
  2. Building of good reputation of the leader as well as the followers as team members (Brooks and Dunn, 2020)
  3. Help remain in compliance with the business laws and policies as well as other rules and regulations (Lin and Liu, 2017)
  4. Avoiding scandals (AlShehhi et al. 2020)
  5. Improving employee engagement (Kaptein, 2019)
  6. Promoting social change
  7. Leading with being an example of an ethical leader (Shakeel et al. 2019)

CMI Codes of conduct for managers

This is for the professional managers and leaders personifying the vision of CMI (Okpozo et al. 2017). The code refers to professionalism, competence, integrity, and honesty. Along with all these, the managers are also responsible for the duty of keeping up-to-date with the current good practices of leaders (Islam, Ahmed, and Ali, 2017).


From the above report, it can be observed that Arthur Lawrence is an ethical leader who practiced ethics throughout his career of directorship. However, he faced a major issue and challenge to his ethical leadership where he will have to choose between the ethical path and non-ethical path for the reviving of the business and economy in Blackley. The concepts and models of ethical leadership have been provided along with the effective application of them in the decision-making process of Arthur Lawrence. In addition, the importance of ethical practices has been provided as well that must be applied in the thinking process by Arthur Lawrence during the decision making regarding the bribe case.

Case study 2-Organisational Cultures and Change


Organizational culture defines the proper way and behavior that must be maintained by the leader and the employees to act in the organizations they are working in. Shared beliefs and values are observed in the organizational employees as established by the organizational leader. However, in the case of mergers and acquisitions, the organizational culture, beliefs values, and communication between two organizations face some major issues due to the differences. This may result in different and non-aligning behavior of the employees and the culture of the two organizations. This is a report that will discuss the issues, organizational culture, leadership styles, and change management of the two organizations after merging.

Main Body

Type of organizational culture of Daimler-Benz and Chrysler

The organizational culture of Daimler-Benz

  1. Respect for authority
  2. Bureaucratic precision
  3. Centralized decision-making (Panuwatwanich and Nguyen, 2017)
  4. Hierarchal in their management philosophy

The organizational culture of Daimler-Benz is the Hierarchical organizational culture. Their primary focus is structure and stability (Martínez-Caro, Cegarra-Navarro and Alfonso-Ruiz, 2020). The organization and its employees have stability, control, integration, and internal focus as practiced by the leader of the corporation (Mansouri, Singh, and Khan, 2018). The companies that maintain the hierarchical organizational culture have the motto of getting it all completed in the right manner and adhere to the traditional structure of corporation (Mannion and Davies, 2018). Dirisu et al (2018) suggested that the internal organization of the company is focused on Daimler-Benz and its employees in the workplace practices and maintenance of organizational culture (Weerts, Vermeulen and Witjes, 2018). A clear chain of commands is observed along with multiple tiers of management that separates the employees from the organizational leader (Roscoe et al. 2019). In addition, it can be observed that the orders and decisions from the leaders are the last words of business practice and the employees do not have any contribution in the decision-making process (Triguero-Sánchez, Peña-Vinces, and Guillen, 2018). The leaders that need to be followed by the employees as followers (Curry et al. 2018) pass rigid structures and orders. The company leaders and employees are hyper-focussed on the daily operations and tasks of the company that needs to be carried out for accomplishing the goals and objectives (Obeidat et al. 2018). The chain of command and division of labor by the hierarchical process is delivered to employees for completing a project (Reino, Rõigas, and Müürsepp, 2020).

The organizational culture of Chrysler

  1. Encouraged creativity
  2. Egalitarian relations among staff (Odor, 2018)
  3. Rewarded handsomely
  4. Performed little paperwork
  5. Keep their meetings short
  6. Operated a flat management structure

The Organizational culture of Chrysler includes two types of culture mixed for better. The organizational culture includes the mixing of Clan culture and adhocracy culture (Kraśnicka and Wronka-Pośpiech, 2018). Chrysler mixes these two for better organizational culture (Tortorella et al. 2020). It can be seen that creativity is encouraged in this organization (Carvalho et al. 2019). This implies that Chrysler maintains Adhocracy culture in the organization. In addition, it can also be seen that Egalitarian relations among staff are found (Prasanna and Haavisto, 2018). This implies that the clan culture is maintained as well which promotes a highly collaborative work environment (Oh and Han, 2020). Happy families like teamwork, equal treatment, and breaking of barriers between employee statuses have been seen as well in this organizational culture (Ogbeibu, Senadjki, and Gaskin, 2018).

Types of leadership styles could be best suited to achieving both these organizations objectives

Leadership styles for achieving organizational objectives of Daimler-Benz

Autocratic or Authoritarian leadership is best suited for achieving the organizational objectives in the organization of Daimler-Benz. These leaders centralize the organizational power as well as the power of decision-making in them only (Al Khajeh, 2018). The leader gives the order, assigns responsibilities, duties, and tasks without consulting the organizational employees. The leader takes full authority, as well as full responsibility, and only he decides the full steps as well as other facts in a project (Gandolfi and Stone, 2018). The leader at the top of the pyramid in a hierarchical organizational structure maintains quick decisions, unity of direction, and prompts actions as well (Asghar and Oino, 2017). The leader does not support the influence or contribution of others (the followers) in the decision-making process (Fiaz, Su, and Saqib, 2017). This is the best leadership style as chosen by the leader in completing the objectives with authority improves team performance in many cases.

Leadership styles for achieving organizational objectives of Chrysler

The organizational leader of Chrysler maintains paternalistic leadership style. The employees are motivated as they are rewarded handsomely (Ardi et al. 2020). Creativity from the employees is encouraged by the leader and the leader also enhances the productivity as well as the cooperation of the employees as a team (Veliu et al. 2017). The leadership style is effective for the organizational objectives as the employees will contribute to the organizational tasks as per their own creative ideas (Rezaei, Allameh, and Ansari, 2018). In addition, the leader will do consideration of every employee and his or her ideas (Cropley and Cropley, 2017). This is effective as the completely organizational team will work together and no conflicts will be occurring between them. The leader of this organization will act as the father of the whole organization and will improve their motivation by treating them equally and rewarding them as well (Rahbi, Khalid, and Khan, 2017).

What can leaders do to ensure effective team engagement within their organizations in case of Change management?

Change is consistent in all organizations; moreover it is a crucial element of growth (Whysall et al. 2019). Generally, when organizations take initiatives for changes, leaders manage to concentrate on putting out specific procedural actions within the organizations, although they frequently overlook the human element of innovation: directing their team moving towards a distinct perception, remodeling culture among the organization, promoting training and growth, including various skills which are required for the various job roles (Dirani et al. 2020). 

Whether the company is starting on consolidation or redemption, improving its services, or marketing unique services, the program transformation will expect workers to imagine, develop and function separately to adjust to the distinct path (Alayoubi et al. 2020). It’s essential to recognize that workers or company staffs are human; furthermore they cannot automatically adjust the changes over distinct processes (Yue et al. 2019). As a result, it is only common for the employees to undergo frustration including expressing unusual levels of endurance (Stouten et al. 2018). But a great leader can adequately approach the concerns of the employees by providing them a level of command for the change.

To guide the team, leaders do effective team engagement by adapting successful change management, considering these given actions:

Begin with a clear vision- A leader needs a general vision on which the team will operate their task unitedly including each stakeholder to obtain the transformation initiative to become actuality (Warrick, 2017). With a clear vision, leaders reduce any trouble for the employees or among all stakeholders on wherewith the company will adopt the change. Prioritizing the perspective of the clear vision always leads to every distinct job (Neves et al. 2018). Including that team members need to continue to concentrate on and follow the vision which has been shown by the leader, so it is necessary to avoid facing actions at the identical time (Rubens et al. 2018). Adding numerous different elements at once produces a barrier for all purposes.

Developing a unique strategy- After presenting a clear vision, it is necessary to engage all the employees about how to reach and provide potential outputs (Bakari et al. 2017). Everyone should be required to know their respective roles in accomplishing a target by applying a strategy that will help in fulfilling the vision.

Communicating quickly, early, and frequently- It has been seen that leaders play an important role as the main communicators to employees (Schoemaker et al. 2018). As a result, any type of important information that needs to be informed to all other employees should be done persistently and steadily (Anderson, 2017). It is most commonly observed that employees got affected by the change in the organization, in this case, they need to inform through emails or any conference meetings what it includes, why it is happening including the outcome of the change among the employees (Heath et al. 2020). Including that, it is important to ask the employees about their point of view, what they are thinking, and about their feelings (Ansell and Boin, 2017). A leader needs to communicate with the employee, they will discuss if the leader listens to them.


From the above discussion, it can be concluded that organizational culture and leadership play an important base in the continuation of organizational culture. It has been seen that different organizations and their leaders maintain different organizational cultures, as well as leadership styles. Different organizational objectives of the two organizations have been achieved by different leadership styles. Therefore, mergers and acquisitions require change management procedures for the mixing of cultures of two organizations as discussed.


Case study 1

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Dust, S.B., Resick, C.J., Margolis, J.A., Mawritz, M.B. and Greenbaum, R.L., 2018. Ethical leadership and employee success: Examining the roles of psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion. The Leadership Quarterly29(5), pp.570-583.

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Islam, T., Ahmed, I. and Ali, G., 2019. Effects of ethical leadership on bullying and voice behavior among nurses: mediating role of organizational identification, poor working condition and workload. Leadership in Health Services32(1), pp.2-17.

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Kaptein, M., 2019. The moral entrepreneur: A new component of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics156(4), pp.1135-1150.

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Lumpkin, A. and Achen, R.M., 2018. Explicating the synergies of self‐determination theory, ethical leadership, servant leadership, and emotional intelligence. Journal of Leadership Studies12(1), pp.6-20.

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Neves, P., Almeida, P. and Velez, M.J., 2018. Reducing intentions to resist future change: Combined effects of commitment‐based HR practices and ethical leadership. Human Resource Management57(1), pp.249-261.

Ng, T.W., Wang, M., Hsu, D.Y. and Su, C., 2021. Changes in perceptions of ethical leadership: Effects on associative and dissociative outcomes. Journal of applied psychology106(1), p.92.

Okpozo, A.Z., Gong, T., Ennis, M.C. and Adenuga, B., 2017. Investigating the impact of ethical leadership on aspects of burnout. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Pasricha, P., Singh, B. and Verma, P., 2018. Ethical leadership, organic organizational cultures and corporate social responsibility: An empirical study in social enterprises. Journal of Business Ethics151(4), pp.941-958.

Peng, A.C. and Kim, D., 2020. A meta‐analytic test of the differential pathways linking ethical leadership to normative conduct. Journal of Organizational Behavior41(4), pp.348-368.

Potipiroon, W. and Ford, M.T., 2017. Does public service motivation always lead to organizational commitment? Examining the moderating roles of intrinsic motivation and ethical leadership. Public Personnel Management46(3), pp.211-238.

Qing, M., Asif, M., Hussain, A. and Jameel, A., 2020. Exploring the impact of ethical leadership on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in public sector organizations: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Review of Managerial Science14(6), pp.1405-1432.

Saha, R., Cerchione, R., Singh, R. and Dahiya, R., 2020. Effect of ethical leadership and corporate social responsibility on firm performance: A systematic review. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management27(2), pp.409-429.

Shafique, I., N Kalyar, M. and Ahmad, B., 2018. The nexus of ethical leadership, job performance, and turnover intention: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems: INDECS16(1), pp.71-87.

Shakeel, F., Kruyen, P.M. and Van Thiel, S., 2019. Ethical leadership as process: A conceptual proposition. Public Integrity21(6), pp.613-624.

Shareef, R.A. and Atan, T., 2019. The influence of ethical leadership on academic employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention: Mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Management Decision.

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Tu, Y., Lu, X., Choi, J.N. and Guo, W., 2019. Ethical leadership and team-level creativity: Mediation of psychological safety climate and moderation of supervisor support for creativity. Journal of Business Ethics159(2), pp.551-565.

Wang, Z., Xing, L., Xu, H. and Hannah, S.T., 2019. Not all followers socially learn from ethical leaders: The roles of followers’ moral identity and leader identification in the ethical leadership process. Journal of Business Ethics, pp.1-21.

Yang, Q. and Wei, H., 2017. Ethical leadership and employee task performance: Examining moderated mediation process. Management Decision.

Yang, Q.I. and Wei, H., 2018. The impact of ethical leadership on organizational citizenship behavior: The moderating role of workplace ostracism. Leadership & Organization Development Journal39(1), pp.100-113.

Case study 2

Al Khajeh, E.H., 2018. Impact of leadership styles on organizational performance. Journal of Human Resources Management Research2018, pp.1-10.

Alayoubi, M.M., Al Shobaki, M.J. and Abu-Naser, S.S., 2020. Strategic leadership practices and their relationship to improving the quality of educational service in Palestinian Universities. International Journal of Business Marketing and Management (IJBMM), 5(3), pp.11-26.

Anderson, M., 2017. Transformational leadership in education: A review of existing literature. International Social Science Review93(1), p.4.

Ansell, C. and Boin, A., 2019. Taming deep uncertainty: The potential of pragmatist principles for understanding and improving strategic crisis management. Administration & Society51(7), pp.1079-1112.

Ardi, A., Djati, S.P., Bernarto, I., Sudibjo, N., Yulianeu, A., Nanda, H.A. and Nanda, K.A., 2020. The Relationship Between Digital Transformational Leadership Styles and Knowledge-Based Empowering Interaction for Increasing Organisational Innovativeness. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change11(3), pp.259-277.

Asghar, S. and Oino, D., 2017. Leadership styles and job satisfaction. Asghar, S., & Oino, I.(2018). Leadership Styles and Job Satisfaction, Market Forces13(1), pp.1-13.

Bakari, H., Hunjra, A.I. and Niazi, G.S.K., 2017. How does authentic leadership influence planned organizational change? The role of employees’ perceptions: Integration of theory of planned behavior and Lewin's three step model. Journal of Change Management, 17(2), pp.155-187.

Capano, G., Howlett, M., Jarvis, D.S., Ramesh, M. and Goyal, N., 2020. Mobilizing policy (in) capacity to fight COVID-19: Understanding variations in state responses. Policy and Society, 39(3), pp.285-308.

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Carvalho, A.M., Sampaio, P., Rebentisch, E., Carvalho, J.Á. and Saraiva, P., 2019. Operational excellence, organisational culture and agility: the missing link?. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence30(13-14), pp.1495-1514.

Chang, S.C. and Lee, M.S., 2017. A study on relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction. The learning organization.

Cropley, D. and Cropley, A., 2017. Innovation capacity, organisational culture and gender. European Journal of Innovation Management.

Curry, L.A., Brault, M.A., Linnander, E.L., McNatt, Z., Brewster, A.L., Cherlin, E., Flieger, S.P., Ting, H.H. and Bradley, E.H., 2018. Influencing organisational culture to improve hospital performance in care of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a mixed-methods intervention study. BMJ quality & safety27(3), pp.207-217.

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Kraśnicka, T., Głód, W. and Wronka-Pośpiech, M., 2018. Management innovation, pro-innovation organisational culture and enterprise performance: testing the mediation effect. Review of managerial science12(3), pp.737-769.

Lichtenstein, B.B. and Plowman, D.A., 2019. The leadership of emergence: A complex systems leadership theory of emergence at successive organizational levels.

Mannion, R. and Davies, H., 2018. Understanding organisational culture for healthcare quality improvement. Bmj363.

Mansouri, A.A.A., Singh, S.K. and Khan, M., 2018. Role of organisational culture, leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour on knowledge management. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies9(2), pp.129-143.

Martínez-Caro, E., Cegarra-Navarro, J.G. and Alfonso-Ruiz, F.J., 2020. Digital technologies and firm performance: The role of digital organisational culture. Technological Forecasting and Social Change154, p.119962.

Neves, P., Almeida, P. and Velez, M.J., 2018. Reducing intentions to resist future change: Combined effects of commitment‐based HR practices and ethical leadership. Human Resource Management, 57(1), pp.249-261.

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Odor, H.O., 2018. Organisational culture and dynamics. Global Journal of Management and Business Research.

Ogbeibu, S., Senadjki, A. and Gaskin, J., 2018. The moderating effect of benevolence on the impact of organisational culture on employee creativity. Journal of Business Research90, pp.334-346.

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Prasanna, S.R. and Haavisto, I., 2018. Collaboration in humanitarian supply chains: an organisational culture framework. International Journal of Production Research56(17), pp.5611-5625.

Rahbi, D.A., Khalid, K. and Khan, M., 2017. The effects of leadership styles on team motivation. Academy of Strategic Management Journal16(3).

Reino, A., Rõigas, K. and Müürsepp, M., 2020. Connections between organisational culture and financial performance in Estonian service and production companies. Baltic Journal of Management.

Rezaei, A., Allameh, S.M. and Ansari, R., 2018. Effect of organisational culture and organisational learning on organisational innovation: an empirical investigation. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management23(3), pp.307-327.

Roscoe, S., Subramanian, N., Jabbour, C.J. and Chong, T., 2019. Green human resource management and the enablers of green organisational culture: Enhancing a firm's environmental performance for sustainable development. Business Strategy and the Environment28(5), pp.737-749.

Rubens, A., Schoenfeld, G.A., Schaffer, B.S. and Leah, J.S., 2018. Self-awareness and leadership: Developing an individual strategic professional development plan in an MBA leadership course. The International Journal of Management Education, 16(1), pp.1-13.

Schoemaker, P.J., Heaton, S. and Teece, D., 2018. Innovation, dynamic capabilities, and leadership. California Management Review, 61(1), pp.15-42.

Shalley, C.E. and Gilson, L.L., 2017. What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The leadership quarterly, 15(1), pp.33-53.

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D.M. and De Cremer, D., 2018. Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), pp.752-788.

Tortorella, G.L., Fettermann, D., Fogliatto, F.S., Kumar, M. and Jurburg, D., 2020. Analysing the influence of organisational culture and leadership styles on the implementation of lean manufacturing. Production planning & control, pp.1-13.

Triguero-Sánchez, R., Peña-Vinces, J. and Guillen, J., 2018. How to improve firm performance through employee diversity and organisational culture. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios20, pp.378-400.

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Weerts, K., Vermeulen, W. and Witjes, S., 2018. On corporate sustainability integration research: Analysing corporate leaders' experiences and academic learnings from an organisational culture perspective. Journal of cleaner production203, pp.1201-1215.

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Whysall, Z., Owtram, M. and Brittain, S., 2019. The new talent management challenges of Industry 4.0. Journal of Management Development.

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